|In 1864, 16th Connecticut Private Henry Adams recorded entries in this small pocket diary. |
(Connecticut Historical Society collection)
|The battles in which the 16th Connecticut participated are noted in the diary. The regiment|
played only a small role at Fredericksburg. At Antietam, its first battle of the war,
the 16th Connecticut was routed.
Like thousands of other Civil War dead, Henry's body was not recovered and returned to his family for burial on his native soil. He probably was haphazardly buried with other Union POWs in a trench in Florence (S.C.) National Cemetery.
|A memorial honors 16th Connecticut Private Henry H. Adams|
in General Lyon Cemetery in Eastford, Conn.
Like others in his regiment, including this soldier, Henry recorded his experiences as a POW. In short entries in a 4 1/2 x 3 1/2-inch, leather-covered pocket diary, he noted his arrival at the notorious Andersonville prison camp in southwestern Georgia in early May ("15,000 prisoners inside"), deaths among his comrades ("two men died in Co. K") and his own health, which gradually deteriorated while in captivity. In many entries, he also noted the weather.
In mid-September 1864 at Andersonville, Adams reported that he was "getting very weak," and nearly two weeks later, he was so incapacitated that he couldn't walk. As Sherman's army marched through Georgia, Confederates transferred Andersonville prisoners to other camps throughout the South. On Oct. 8, Adams was sent to Florence, S.C., where initially he did well. But he soon was overcome by disease, which crippled or killed thousands of Union prisoners of war at Andersonville, Florence and elsewhere.
At the Connecticut Historical Society in Hartford, I had the privilege of reading Henry's diary, which amazingly survived the war. Opposite the title page of the journal, someone -- probably Henry himself -- recorded the battles in which the 16th Connecticut participated. But the most compelling, and haunting, entry in the fragile diary are the 10 words written in someone else's hand on Oct. 20, 1864.
Here are selections from Henry Adams' 1864 pocket diary:
April 18, 1864: Battle of Plymouth
"Fort Wessels captured. Heavy fireing in the morning between fort Gray and Reb batteries. Tuscany & Gunboat Bombshell sank. The Rebs charged on the works but were repulsed.
April 19, 1864
"Heavy fireing in the morning. The Rebel ram came down and sank the gunboat Smithfield. Pleasant.
April 20, 1864: Captured
"Taken prisoner in the morning. Lines out on the Washington Road all night."
May 4, 1864: Arrives at Andersonville
"Went inside of the stockade. Our company in the 44th Mess, 30th mess Drawed 1 days rations. There is 15,000 prisoners inside. Pleasant."
August 16, 1864: Deaths
"Drew (?) cooked beans and beef. Cool and pleasant. Had a small shower just at night. Another man died from our company."
August 17, 1864
"Had our roll call. Cool and pleasant. Had to help draw rations from our team. Two men died from Co. K."
October 13, 1864: Florence, S.C.
"We are in a very pleasant place but have no shelter. The women are very kind and bring in some nice things but the sickest get more."
October 16, 1864: Florence, S.C.
"Another cool and pleasant day. We are getting along very well only we do not get enough to eat."
October 19, 1864: Exchange?
"Cool and pleasant. We heard a sermon preached in our ward. There is talk of an exchange of the sick but can't tell."
"The writer of the foregoing died at 9 o'clock pm."
|Hundreds of Union prisoners of war from the Florence, S.C., stockade are buried in trenches |
at the national cemetery nearby. The body of Henry Adams probably is among them.